Algeria is a nation in North Africa. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Morocco and Mauritania to the west, Mali to the south, and Libya to the east. Since the division of Sudan, Algeria has been the largest nation in Africa.
Algeria was a part of the Roman Empire. Towards the end of the Roman Empire, it became a part of the Vandal Kingdom. In the 7th century AD it was conquered by the Arabs and the locals converted to Islam. In the Middle Ages it became an independent sultanate famous for its piracy.
Algeria was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century, but it quickly became a semi-independent kingdom again. Algeria was defeated in the Barbary Wars by the United States, and in the 1830s France colonized Algeria, ostensibly to end Barbary piracy.
Algeria defected to Vichy France in World War II, and was retaken by the Allies in the North Africa Campaign. In the 1960s, Algeria began a war of independence. France initially resisted, but it was unable to defeat the Algerian guerrillas and eventually gave in. Algeria fought a bloody civil war in the 1990s between the government and an Islamic insurgency. Algeria has become moderately prosperous due to oil reserves. Algeria saw limited protests during the Arab Spring of 2011.