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Czechoslovakia was a country in Eastern Europe that existed from 1918 to 1993. It was created in 1918 following the Treaty of Versailles and the breakup of Austria-Hungary. Because of the large number of Germans and German-speakers in the Sudetenland, a region bordering Germany, Adolf Hitler gradually annexed the entire country by 1939. The previous government continued to exist in exile until the end of the war.

Czechoslovakia was liberated from the Nazis by the Soviet Union in 1945, at which point the Ukrainian-majority area of the country was transferred to the Soviet Union. With a communist government installed, it became part of the Eastern Bloc until 1989, when the Velvet Revolution restored democracy. In 1992, following pressures from nationalist groups, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The countries came into existence on 1 January 1993.

In 1992 it had a population of approximately 15 million. It was a multiethnic and multilingual nation, consisting of mostly Czechs, Slovaks, Germans, Hungarians, Poles and Ukrainians. Czechs were the largest ethnic group and dominated national politics, and the vast majority of the country's industry was located in Bohemia. The capital was at Prague, which was also in the Czech area.

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