The term Fascist Italy refers to the period of Italian history from 1929 to 1945, when Italy was ruled by Benito Mussolini. Italy participated in World War II as an Axis Power. In 1944, Mussolini was overthrown and Italy joined the Allies, and Mussolini was installed as a puppet dictator in northern Italy. The next year, he was captured again and executed. In 1946, the King of Italy abdicated, and Italy became a republic.