The Kingdom of England was a nation located roughly within the borders of the modern country of England. It existed from 927, when Aethelstan was crowned Rex Anglorum, to 1707, when it joined with the Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Main article: History of England
The Kingdom of England was an Anglo-Saxon, Christian kingdom established by Aethelstan in 927. In the beginning, it was plagued by constant Viking raids and full-scale invasions, including by Canute the Great in the 10th century and Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013.
In 1066, William the Conqueror and his Norman army took over England. He built a number of castles, called for a national census, and created a mixed Anglo-Norman culture. In 1215, King John was forced by his lords to sign the Magna Carta, a document limiting his power. This was the first step taken towards a constitutional monarchy. In the 13th century, Edward I began a campaign against the Kingdom of Scotland in the north.
Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, England fought a series of wars, collectively known as the Hundred Years' War, against France. Although initially successful, by 1453 France had almost completely expelled England from the continent. This setback forced England to direct her attention overseas. In 1607, a colony was established in Virginia, and soon after English colonies dotted the American coast. Trading posts were also built in India.
In 1649, King Charles I was overthrown and executed by Oliver Cromwell. For much of the 1650s the English Civil War raged between Cromwell and the royalists. His New Model Army prevailed over his enemies, and he also brought Ireland under English control. After his death in 1659, his son Richard Cromwell took power. He was quickly overthrown, and the monarchy was reestablished. In 1707, the Kingdom of Scotland agreed to the Acts of Union proposed by the English Parliament, and they formed a union known as the Kingdom of Great Britain.