Not to be confused with the City of London
London is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. It is located on the River Thames in the south of England. It is often considered the world's second most important financial center, after New York City.
London was first established by the Romans as "Londinium." It was a major city in Roman Britannia. After the Romans left in the early 5th century, London fell to disrepair. The capital of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia and the Kingdom of England was at Westminster, now a neighborhood of London but then a separate city. Westminster grew around the City of London, and eventually the name was transferred from the original settlement to the larger area. The Tower of London was built in London by William the Conqueror in the 11th century.
London rose as an international economic and financial center in the 17th century. By the middle of the 19th century, it was the largest city in Europe. It profited greatly from being the center of the British Empire, and many public buildings such as the Houses of Parliament and the Tower Bridge were built. London was bombed by zeppelins during World War I, suffered more than a thousand casualties. The Blitz of World War II caused extensive damage and nearly 40,000 casualties; it also helped clear out the old buildings of the city center. London was revitalized after the war, with the construction of a new town hall and several skyscrapers.