Massachusetts is a U.S. state in New England. Massachusetts is the most populous state in New England, and its capital, Boston, is the largest city in the region. Massachusetts borders New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west, and Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south.
Massachusetts was one of the first states to be colonized by the English, with the first settlers arriving in 1620. These mostly constituted religious refugees, including Calvinists and Puritans. The Salem Witch Trials took place in Salem, Massachusetts in the late 1600s.
Boston increasingly became a major city of the Thirteen Colonies in the 18th century. The Boston Tea Party and the Boston Massacre led to the American Revolution. The Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775 allowed the rebels to take control of Boston.
In the 19th century, Massachusetts was one of the first states to industrialize. Massachusetts also became a center of education, with Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology gaining prominence.