Norway is a nation in Scandinavia. It shares a long border with Sweden to the east. Like the other Nordic countries, Norway scores highly on quality of life and democracy indices. Its capital and largest city is Oslo.
Norway was a member of the Kalmar Union for much of the Middle Ages, and Denmark-Norway after that. Norway gained its independence from Denmark in 1814, but was immediately annexed by Sweden afterwards. Norway did not become permanently independent until 1905. Norway was invaded by Nazi Germany in the 1940 Battle of Norway during World War II; the defection of the Prime Minister, Vidkun Quisling, hampered Norwegian resistance. After World War II, the discovery of oil in the North Sea improved the Norwegian economy and helped fund the growing welfare state.
Most Norwegians speak the Norwegian language, a language closely related to Danish and Swedish. Since the Protestant Reformation, most of Norway's population has been Protestant, although in recent years Norwegians have become increasingly indifferent.