Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in eastern Europe. It is the largest country entirely within Europe, and has a population of approximately 45 million people. The capital and largest city is Kiev. It is bordered by Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary to the west and Moldova, Romania to the south. Ukraine has a high Human Development Index and is a former Soviet republic, having gained its independence in 1991. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian economy experienced a rapid deindustrialization and economic development remains below pre-1991 levels.